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Historical

From Neolithic times until today, the archaeological findings in Tăşnad, confirmed by the historical evidence, demonstrates the existence and continuity of human life on current territory of the town. The research carried out on the past existence in time and on the development of the town, reveals that the first mention of the town Tășnad was in document from 1021 written by a local parson (Nicolaus Mester Tasnadi plebanus), the title of the manuscript is „Descriptica Fondationis Episcopus et Capitali Varadiensis" and he refers to himself as „vicarus generalis Tasnadi". The information contained in this brief statement is quite suggestive: on one hand it reflects the existence of human community socially connected and on the other hand, the presence of the already established name of the town, that of Tăşnad.

Two centuries later, from 1240 to1246, the chancellery of Bela the 4th, King of Hungary issues a series of documents which states that the settlement receives facilities for the integration of as many families as possible in the local community because of the labour needed on the episcopal domain ("possessio Tasnad"). The mention in the document issued on May 6, 1240 that "Tăşnad knew the evil persecution of Tatars, for this reason the settlement dealt with a great lack of residents, who seemed to exist no more or were very few in number, fully explains both the privileges granted to the town by the King Ladislaus in 1282, and forceful action, in the same year, of the bishop Peter of Transylvania who takes from the Count’s Steven domain located in the Gyord village, 30 families of serfs, whom he sets in the mentioned area.

Subsequently, in 1368 the mentions multiply, the fiscal and administrative documents testify the existence of a mill for grain in the village, and that in 1456 the settlement was conferred the title of "oppidum" by Matei Corvin or by request of the Bishop of Transylvania, to the same great Hungarian king of Romanian origin, the right to build in Tăşnad a fortress of wood or stone. Therefore, we easily infer the increasing importance of the settlement, its economical, social and strategic role in the region.

With reference to the topic Tăşnad, the historian Petri Mor, son of the town, in his monumental work entitled „Szilagy Varmegye monographiaja", published in four volumes in Budapest in the years 1901-1904, attempts to explain and to argue it into a first draft, based on the geographical realities of the place, respectively from the moist areas of Cehalu meadow where the reed (nád, in Hungarian) grows abundantly in the flooded basins during rainy periods forming true lakes (tó, in the same language) . Thus it results a compound word Tó-s-nád, meaning the reed lake, the topic was assigned by locals from the south-eastern area of settlement, where such hydrographic and biogeographic formation used to exist in old times. And by extension, it was also assigned to the settlement built on its banks.

Another opinion held by the same author makes reference to the annotation made by the the Anonimus notary of King Bela III, which mentions in Gesta Hungarorum that King Arpad sent in the area a troop of horsemen led by Tas (Thosu) and who camped near a reed lake. Thus the phrase Tasnadja comes from the name of the plant, this time in association with the name of the captain, meaning Tas’ reed.

As a result, the topic of Tăşnad is most probably of Hungarian origin (with direct reference to a "marshy place"), it has suffered in time many semantic adaptations, determined also by its partially different in Romanian and German forms, available in the table below, together with the names of other settlements attached today to the administrative unit (Blaja, Cig, Ratiu, Mill Valley, Sărăuad) (Suciu, C. 1967-1968).

t2    t1

The negative historical events did not by-pass the town, one of the most destructive being the Tatar invasion of 1566 when the settlement was almost entirely looted and destroyed, and the population, while trying to refuge in a safer place, was slaughtered or taken into slavery . However, the repopulation of the area was extremely fast, in just four years, in 1570, this results from the treaty between the Emperor Maximilian and prince of Transylvania, John Sigismund, concluded in Speyer, where it was attested for the first time the existence of a stone fortress, with a strategic role to immediately protect the civil establishments.

Being a Tăşnad resident in the feudal period does not seem to be one of the most attractive status, otherwise how could we interpret the content of the document written by Sigismund Bathory in 1589 on the privileges granted to those who settled here (tax exemption for a period of four years if they occupy an empty house, and for seven years if they build their own house). But facilities are also followed by restrictions (another hint of the aforementioned statement) regarding the resettlement to other places.

The Turkish occupation in the second half of the 17th century had also left deep marks in the memory of the inhabitants, the population being often butchered during the invasions and military conflicts.

Tăşnad had also undergone to other special tests at the end of the 17th century (1678) and beginning of the 18th century (1709-1710, 1739-1742) when the local population had been affected by epidemic cholera or plague. All these poisonous episodes had profoundly marked the settlement, most of its population had been affected by the devastating diseases of those times.

The demographic consequence of those tragic events, had been the colonization of the region between 1754 and 1760, with massive groups of Swabians, from the Schwartzwald (Black Forest) region, located in south-western part of today’s Germany. The purpose of this population resettlement consisted both in the need of manpower for a developing economy and in counterbalancing through specific Swabian Catholicism, the specific spread of the Protestant sects, especially among local people. This way the ethnic mosaic varies, along with Romanian and Hungarian continue to cohabit this diligent and disciplined population who will bring a substantial contribution to the culture of the place.

A different misfortune befell the village, earthquakes shook the settlement at short time intervals in 1829 and 1834. Although the region is not defined by a high seismicity, a more active hotbed of such terrestrial events being located much further south, in Banat, the damage suffered by the urban infrastructure by the collapse of several houses, shows a high relative intensity of the earthquakes, the at least 5 degrees on the Richter scale.

The history records, along with the Grand National Assembly of Alba Iulia, December 1, 1918, the establishment of the Romanian administration in Tăşnad, which will continue with one syncope (the consequences of the Vienna Dictate, from September 1940, when Crisana, a geographic and historic region which includes Tăşnad, and the northern and central Transylvania are reintegrated until October 1944 to the Hungarian state) until today.

The political-administrative entities which were part of town, are another interesting aspect. Resettlements were extremely numerous in this area, both territorial grids and their names changed from one era to another, from one political system to another. Thus, only in the last eight decades Tăşnad had been integrated to Salaj County (until 1948), more extended westward, and to Carei district (between 1952 and 1960), unit belonging to Maramures Region and since 1968 to Satu Mare county.

Also, as another curiosity, it must be emphasized that in 1875 Tăşnad passed from being a town to being a commune (in order to avoid the high taxes bore by residents of the town), which would change a century later, in 1968, when the town was record again among the urban centres.